Kelle, U. (1997) 'Theory Building
in Qualitative Research and Computer Programs for the Management of Textual
Sociological Research Online, vol. 2, no. 2, <http://www.socresonline.org.uk/2/2/1.html>
To cite articles published in Sociological Research Online, please reference the above information and include paragraph numbers if necessary
Received: 11/2/97 Accepted: 2/6/97 Published: 30/6/97
Qualitative coding is not the same as quantitative coding. The term itself provides a case in point in which the language may obscure meaning and method. Quantitative coding requires preconceived, logically deduced codes into which the data are placed. Qualitative coding, in contrast, means creating categories from interpretation of the data. Rather than relying on preconceived categories and standardized procedures, qualitative coding has its own distinctive structure, logic and purpose. (Charmaz, 1983: p.111)
|1||job and profession|
|1.1||job and profession/aspirations|
|1.2||job and profession/realizations|
|1.3||job and profession/evaluations|
Figure 1: An Extract from a Coding Scheme
I mean, that was ... how we found ourselves, how we lived together after that, the marriage and how we lived together when we married, somehow, I liked it more. As it is today, I mean, I mean that this is not good today. It is not ideal, how they are together or not ... I don't know, that's nothing for me. (Case 60)
Well, I mean, if one moves together in one apartment, (...) one should marry, or be at least engaged in the beginning. That has perhaps something to do with morality, since we were educated that way. Morals have become a little bit loose today.... (Case 98)
Well, I like it that one does obviously not live, so to speak, under that strong pressure (to get married) today, and the children can do it today in different ways... But there is also some regret, that it is a little bit too loose today.... (Case 46)
BECKER, H. and GEER, B. (1960) 'Participant Observation: The Analysis of Qualitative Field Data' in R. N. ADAMS and J. J. PREISS (editors) Human Organization Research: Field Relations and Techniques. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.
BLUMER, HERBERT (1969) Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
BRAEMER, G. (1994) Wandel im Selbstbild des Familienernîhrers? Reflexionen ˝ber vierzig Jahre Ehe-, Erwerbs- und Familienleben, Working Paper No. 29, Sonderforschungsbereich 186, Bremen.
CHARMAZ, K. (1983) 'The Grounded Theory Method: An Explication and Interpretation' in R. M. EMERSON (editor) Contemporary Field Research: A Collection of Writings. Prospect Heights: Waveland Press.
COFFEY, A, HOLBROOK, B. & ATKINSON, P. (1996) 'Qualitative Data Analysis: Technologies and Representations', Sociological Research Online, vol. 1, no.1, <http://www.socre sonline.org.uk/socresonline/1/1/4.html>.
CONRAD, P. and REINARZ, S. (1984) 'Qualitative Computing: Approaches and Issues', Qualitative Sociology, vol. 7, pp. 34 - 60.
CRESSEY, D. (1971) Other People's Money: A Study in the Social Psychology of Embezzlement. Belmont: Wadsworth (1st edn, 1953).
DENZIN, N. and LINCOLN, Y. (editors) (1994) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
DEY, I. (1995) 'Reducing Fragmentation in Qualitative Research' in U. Kelle (editor) Computer-Aided Qualitative Data Analysis: Theory, Methods and Practice. London: Sage.
DOTZLER, H. (1995) 'Using Software for Interpretive Text Analysis: Results from Interviews with Research Teams' paper presented at SoftStat '95: 8th Conference on the Scientific Use of Statistical Software, March 26 - 30, Heidelberg, Germany.
DREYFUS, H. L. (1972) What Computers Can't Do: A Critique of Artificial Reason. New York: Harper.
DREYFUS, S. E. and DREYFUS, H. L. (1986) Mind Over Machine: The Power of Human Intuition and Expertise in the Era of the Computer. Oxford: Blackwell.
EISNER, E. (1981) 'On the Differences between Scientific and Artistic Approaches to Qualitative Research', Educational Researcher, vol. 10, pp. 5 - 9.
GIDDENS, A. (1976) New Rules of Sociological Methods: A Positive Critique of Interpretive Sociologies. London: Hutchinson.
GLASER, B. and STRAUSS, A. (1967) The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
GLASER, B. (1978) Theoretical Sensitivity: Advances in the Methodology of Grounded Theory. Mill Valley: The Sociology Press.
GLASER, B. (1992) Emergence vs. Forcing: Basics of Grounded Theory Analysis. Mill Valley: The Sociology Press.
HANSON, N. R. (1965) Patterns of Discovery: An Inquiry into the Conceptual Foundations of Science. Cambridge: CUP.
HANSON, N. (1971) 'The Idea of a Logic of Discovery' in S. TOULMIN (editor) What I do not Believe and Other Essays. Dordrecht: Reidel.
HEINZ, W. (1996) 'Transitions in Youth in a Cross Cultural Perspective: School-to-work in Germany' in B. Galaway and J. Hudson (editors) Youth in Transition to Adulthood: Research and Policy Implications. Toronto: Thompson Educational Publication.
HESSE-BIBER, S. and DUPUIS, P. (1995) 'Hypothesis Testing in Computer-Aided Qualitative Data Analysis' in U. Kelle (editor) Computer-Aided Qualitative Data Analysis: Theory, Methods and Practice. London: Sage.
HUBER, G. (1995) 'Qualitative Hypothesis Examination and Theory Building' in U. Kelle (editor) Computer-Aided Qualitative Data Analysis: Theory, Methods and Practice. London: Sage.
HUBER, G. and MANDL, H. (editors) (1982) Verbale Daten. Weinheim : Beltz.
JORGENSON, D. L. (1989) Participant Observation: A Methodology for Human Studies. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
KELLE, U. (editor) (1995) Computer-Aided Qualitative Data Analysis: Theory, Methods and Practice. London: Sage.
KELLE, U. (1996) 'Die Bedeutung Theoretischen Vorwissens in der Methodologie der Grounded Theory' in R. Strobl and A. Böttger (editors) Wahre Geschichten? Zu Theorie und Praxis qualitativer Interviews. Baden-Baden: Nomos.
KELLE, U and LAURIE, H. (1995) 'Computer Use in Qualitative Research and Issues of Validity' in U. Kelle (editor) Computer-Aided Qualitative Data Analysis: Theory, Methods and Practice. London: Sage.
KRUEGER, H. (1996) 'Normative Interpretations of Biographical Sequences' in A. Weymann (editor) Society and Biography: Interrelations between Social Structure, Institutions and the Life Course. Weinheim: Deutscher Studien Verlag.
KUCKARTZ, U. (1995) 'Case-Oriented Quantification' in U. KELLE (editor) Computer-Aided Qualitative Data Analysis: Theory, Methods and Practice. London: Sage.
LAKATOS, I. (1982) The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes. Philosophical Papers: Volume 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
LEE, R. and FIELDING, N. (editors) (1991) Using Computers in Qualitative Research. London: Sage.
LEE, R. M. and FIELDING, N. G. (1995) 'Users' Experiences of Qualitative Data Analysis Software' in U. Kelle (editor) Computer- Aided Qualitative Data Analysis: Theory, Methods and Practice. London: Sage.
LEE, R. & FIELDING, N. (1996a) 'Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis: The User's Perspective' in F. Faulbaum and W. Bandilla (editors) SOFTSTAT '95: Advances in Statistical Software 5. Stuttgart: Lucius.
LEE, R. & FIELDING, N. (1996b) 'Qualitative Data Analysis: Representations of a Technology: A Comment on Coffey, Holbrook and Atkinson', Sociological Research Online, vol. 1, no. 4, <http://www.socre sonline.org.uk/socresonline/1/4/lf.html>.
LINDESMITH, A. (1968) Addiction and Opiates. Chicago: Aldine (1st edn, 1947).
LONKILA, M. (1995) 'Grounded Theory as an Emerging Paradigm for Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis' in U. Kelle (editor) Computer-Aided Qualitative Data Analysis: Theory, Methods and Practice. London: Sage.
MANGABEIRA, WILMA (1995) 'Computer Assistance, Qualitative Analysis and Model Building' in R. Lee (editor) Information Technology for the Social Scientist. London: UCL Press.
MERTON, R. K. (1957) Social Theory and Social Structure, 2nd edition. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
PLATT, J. (1996) 'Has Funding Made a Difference to Research Methods?' Sociological Research Online, vol. 1, no.1, <http://www.socre sonline.org.uk/socresonline/1/1/5.html>.
RICHARDS, L. and RICHARDS, T. (1991) 'The Transformation of Qualitative Method: Computational Paradigms and Research Processes' in R. Lee and N. Fielding (editors) Using Computers in Qualitative Research. London: Sage.
RICHARDS, T. and RICHARDS, L. (1995) 'Using Computers in Qualitative Research' in N. Denzin and Y. Lincoln (editors) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
SEIDEL, J. (1991) 'Method and Madness in the Application of Computer Technology to Qualitative Data Analysis' in R. Lee and N. Fielding (editors) Using computers in Qualitative Research. London: Sage.
SEIDEL, J. & KELLE, U. (1995) 'Different Functions of Coding in the Analysis of Textual Data' in U. Kelle (editor) Computer-Aided Qualitative Data Analysis: Theory, Methods and Practice. London: Sage.
STRAUSS, A. and CORBIN, J. (1990) Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
TESCH, R. (1990) Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools. New York: Falmer Press.
WEITZMAN, E. and MILES, M. (1995) Computer Programs for Qualitative Data Analysis. Thousand Oaks: Sage
WINOGRAD, T. and FLORES, F. (1986) Understanding Computers and Cognition. Chicago: Ablex.